© Dr. Hilmar Alquiros The Philippines 2002 ff. 

Potenzprobleme?!

- Systeme International (SI) prefix         Hit Counter  

1033

Quintilliarden

una, vendeka

V  

1030

Quintillionen

dea

***  

1027

Quadrilliarden

nea, xenna

X  

1024

Quadrillionen

Yetta

Y

from otto, eight Italian (1991)   [also: otta]

1021

Trilliarden

Zetta

Z

from sette, seven Italian (1991)    [also: hepa]

1018

Trillionen

Exa

E

from hex, six in Greek; griech. exa: über alles (1975)

1015

Billiarden

Peta

P

from pente, five in Greek; griech. petanünnein: alles umfassen (1975)

1012

Billionen

Tera

T

teras, monster in Greek; griech. teras: ungeheuer groß

109

Milliarden

Giga

G

gigas, giant in Greek; griech. gigas: riesige Zahl

106

Millionen

Mega

M

megas, huge in Greek griech. megas: große Zahl [Used c.1870, legal in France since 1919.]

105

Hunderttausend

hectokilo hk  

104

Zehntausend

myria ma, my 1795

103

Tausend

Kilo

k

khilioi, thousand in Greek, griech. chilioi: tausend

102

Hundert

Hekto

h

hekaton, hundred in Greek; griech. hekaton: hundert

101

Zehn

Deka

D,da,dk

deka, ten in Greek; griech. deka: zehn

100

(Eins)

***

***

Unprefixed.

10-1

Zehntel

Dezi

d

decimus, tenth in Latin; lat. decem: zehn (1793)

10-2

Hundertstel

Zenti

c

centum, hundred in Latin; lat. centum: hundert (1793)

10-3

Tausendstel

Milli

m

mille, thousand in Latin; lat. millesimus: der tausendste Teil (1793)

10-4

Zehntausendstel decimilli,dimi dm  

10-5

Hunderttausendstel centimilli cm  

10-6

Millionstel

Mikro

µ

mikros, small in Greek; griech. mikros: klein, unbedeutend

10-9

Milliardstel

Nano

n

nanos, dwarf in Greek; riech. nanos: zwerghaft klein  (1960)

10-12

Billionstel

Piko

p

pico, little bit in Spanish; ital. pico: sehr klein  (1960)

10-15

Billiardstel

Femto

f

femten, 15 in Danish or Norwegian; dän.-norw. femten: 15 (1964)

10-18

Trillionstel

Atto

a

atten, 18 in Danish or Norwegian; dän.-norw. atten: 18 (1964)

10-21

Trilliardstel

Zepto

z

from sept, seven Greek (1991)   [also; fito]

10-24

Quadrillionstel

Yocto

y

from okto, eight Greek (1991)  [also; fito]

10-27

Quadrilliardstel

syto, xenno

x  
10-30

Quintillionstel

tredo

***  
10-33

Quintilliardstel

revo, vendeko

v  

 

The etymology of the SI prefixes is quite interesting in itself.  Many came from Greek and Latin via the French but a few are from other European languages.  The choice of femto was convenient because fm for 10-15 metres coincides with the old symbol which was short for fermi.  Peta and exa were apparently modelled on tera by imagining that it came from tetra (four in Greek) with the r dropped.  Hence peta is penta with the n dropped and exa is hexa with the h dropped.  In the cases of yotta, zetta, zepto and yocto the initial letters were obviously required because they would not confuse with other symbols.  Other than that they are roughly modelled on previous prefixes.
http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Administrivia/notation.html
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Each prefix is represented by it's own symbol. The symbols are case sensitive. Thus, m means milli and M means mega.

Prefixes ranging from micro to mega were first introduced in 1874 by BAAS as part of their CGS system. Later, 12 prefixes ranging from pico to tera were defined as part of the International System of Units - SI, which was adopted in 1960. SI is maintained by BIPM under exclusive supervision of CIPM and resolutions made by CGPM. Further 8 prefixes were added to SI in years 1964 (femto, atto), 1975 (peta, exa) and 1991 (zetta, zepto, yotta, yocto).

The prefixes have the following etymology:

The names zepto and zetta are derived from septo, from Latin septem which means seven (the seventh power of 103) and the letter 'z' is substituted for the letter 's' to avoid the duplicate use of the letter 's' as a symbol in SI. The names yocto and yotta are derived from Latin octo which means eight (the eighth power of 103); the letter 'y' is added to avoid the use of the letter 'o' as a symbol because it may be confused with the number zero. The CGMP has decided to name the prefixes, starting with the seventh, with the letters of the Latin alphabet, but starting from the end. Therefore the choice of letters 'z' and 'y'. The initial letter 'h' of the word hexa in standard French is silent, so it was removed in order to simplify things.
http://members.optus.net/alexey/prefSI.html

Spaß muss sein:

  1027 etymology 10-27 etymology
Morgan Burke (1993) grouchi   groucho Marx brother
Tamara Munzner
(1995)
lotta
L
"many" (American
or British slang)
lotto
l
"minuscule" (chances
in eponymous game)
Alex López-Ortiz?
(Hoax: 1996-1998)
nea 9
(Greek ennea)
syto ?
Gérard Michon
(2002)
nova
N
9
(French neuf )
novo
n
9
(French neuf )
James Yolkowski?
(Hoax: 2001-2002)
xenna
X
9
 
xenno
x
9
 

http://home.att.net/~numericana/answer/humor.htm#units

also see:
http://www.w-akten.de/statistik.shtml
http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/z/zepto.htm
http://www.friesian.com/quanta.htm#note
http://www.cs.unb.ca/~alopez-o/math-faq/mathtext/node25.html
 

some more ...

>6 Million
>9 Milliarde
>12 Billion
>15 Billiarde
>18 Trillion
>21 Trilliarde
>24 Quadrillion
>27 Quadrilliarde
>30 Quintillion
>33 Quintilliarde
>36 Sextillion
>39 Sextilliarde
>42 Septillion
>45 Septilliarde
>48 Octillion
>51 Octilliarde
>54 Nintillion
>57 Nintilliarde
>60 Decillion
>63 Decilliarde
>66 Undecillion
>69 Undecilliarde
>72 Duodecillion
>75 Duodecilliarde
>78 Tredecillion
>81 Tredecilliarde
usw.
Quattuordecillion mit 84 nullen,
Quindecillion = 90 Nullen
sexdecillion = 96 Nullen
septendecillion = 102 nullen
octodecillion = 108 Nullen
novemdecillion = 114 Nullen
Vigintillion = 120 Nullen
Trigintillion = 180 Nullen
Quadragintillion = 240 Nullen
Quinquagintillion = 300 Nullen
Sexagintillion = 360 Nullen
Septuagintillion = 420 Nullen
Octogintillion = 480 Nullen,
Nonagintillion = 540 Nullen
Centillion = 600 Nullen
Ducentillion = 1.200 Nullen
Trecentillion = 1.800 Nullen
Quadringentillion = 2.400 Nullen
Quingentillion = 3.000 Nullen
Sescentillion = 3.600 Nullen
Septingentillion = 4.200 Nullen
Octingentillion = 4.800 Nullen
Nongentillion = 5.400 Nullen
Milliatillion = 6.000 Nullen
Domilliatillion = 12.000 Nullen
Tremilliatillion = 18.000 Nullen
und das geht dann unter anderem noch bis zur Milliamilliatrecentunquinquaginmilliacentnovemquadragintillion.
usw.

http://www.f1.parsimony.net/forum1924/messages/105.htm

 

http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/large.html

 

How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement
© Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Names for Large Numbers

The English names for large numbers are coined from the Latin names for small numbers n by adding the ending -illion suggested by the name "million." Thus billion and trillion are coined from the Latin prefixes bi- (n = 2) and tri- (n = 3), respectively. In the American system for naming large numbers, the name coined from the Latin number n applies to the number 103n+3. In a system traditional in many European countries, the same name applies to the number 106n.

In particular, a billion is 109 = 1 000 000 000 in the American system and 1012 = 1 000 000 000 000 in the European system. For 109, Europeans say "thousand million" or "milliard."

Although we describe the two systems today as American or European, both systems are actually of French origin. The French physician and mathematician Nicolas Chuquet (1445-1488) apparently coined the words byllion and tryllion and used them to represent 1012 and 1018, respectively, thus establishing what we now think of as the "European" system. However, it was also French mathematicians of the 1600's who used billion and trillion for 109 and 1012, respectively. This usage became common in France and in America, while the original Chuquet nomenclature remained in use in Britain and Germany. The French decided in 1948 to revert to the Chuquet ("European") system, leaving the U.S. as the chief standard bearer for what then became clearly an American system.

In recent years, American usage has eroded the European system, particularly in Britain and to a lesser extent in other countries. This is primarily due to American finance, because Americans insist that $1 000 000 000 be called a billion dollars. In 1974, the government of Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced that henceforth "billion" would mean 109 and not 1012 in official British reports and statistics. The Times of London style guide now defines "billion" as "one thousand million, not a million million."

The result of all this is widespread confusion. Anyone who uses the words "billion" and "trillion" internationally should make clear which meaning of those words is intended. On the Internet, some sites outside the U.S. use the compound designation "milliard/billion" to designate the number 1 000 000 000. In science, the names of large numbers are usually avoided completely by using the appropriate SI prefixes. Thus 109 bytes is a gigabyte and 1012 joules is a terajoule. Such terms cannot be mistaken.

There is no real hope of resolving the controversy in favor of either system. Americans are not likely to adopt the European nomenclature, and Europeans will always regard the American system as an imposition. However, it is possible to imagine a solution: junk both Latin-based systems and move to a Greek-based system in which, for n > 3, the Greek number n is used to generate a name for 103n. (The traditional names thousand and million are retained for n = 1 and 2 and the special name gillion, suggested by the SI prefix giga-, is proposed for n = 3.)

n =

103n =

American
name

European
name

SI prefix

Greek-based
name
(proposed)

3

109

billion

milliard

giga-

gillion

4

1012

trillion

billion

tera-

tetrillion

5

1015

quadrillion

billiard

peta-

pentillion

6

1018

quintillion

trillion

exa-

hexillion

7

1021

sextillion

trilliard

zetta-

heptillion

8

1024

septillion

quadrillion

yotta-

oktillion

9

1027

octillion

quadrilliard

 

ennillion

10

1030

nonillion

quintillion

 

dekillion

11

1033

decillion

quintilliard

 

hendekillion

12

1036

undecillion

sextillion

 

dodekillion

13

1039

duodecillion

sextilliard

 

trisdekillion

14

1042

tredecillion

septillion

 

tetradekillion

15

1045

quattuordecillion

septilliard

 

pentadekillion

16

1048

quindecillion

octillion

 

hexadekillion

17

1051

sexdecillion

octilliard

 

heptadekillion

18

1054

septendecillion

nonillion

 

oktadekillion

19

1057

octodecillion

nonilliard

 

enneadekillion

20

1060

novemdecillion

decillion

 

icosillion

21

1063

vigintillion

decilliard

 

icosihenillion

22

1066

unvigintillion

undecillion

 

icosidillion

23

1069

duovigintillion

undecilliard

 

icositrillion

24

1072

trevigintillion

duodecillion

 

icositetrillion

25

1075

quattuorvigintillion

duodecilliard

 

icosipentillion

26

1078

quinvigintillion

tredecillion

 

icosihexillion

27

1081

sexvigintillion

tredecilliard

 

icosiheptillion

28

1084

septenvigintillion

quattuordecillion

 

icosioktillion

29

1087

octovigintillion

quattuordecilliard

 

icosiennillion

30

1090

novemvigintillion

quindecillion

 

triacontillion

31

1093

trigintillion

quindecilliard

 

triacontahenillion

32

1096

untrigintillion

sexdecillion

 

triacontadillion

33

1099

duotrigintillion

sexdecilliard

 

triacontatrillion

This process can be continued indefinitely, but one has to stop somewhere. The name centillion (n = 100) has appeared in many dictionaries. A centillion is 10303 (1 followed by 303 zeroes) in the American system and a whopping 10600 (1 followed by 600 zeroes) in the European system.

Finally, there is the googol, the number 10100 (1 followed by 100 zeroes). Invented more for fun than for use, the googol lies outside the regular naming systems. The googol equals 10 duotrigintillion in the American system, 10 sexdecilliard in the European system, and 10 triacontatrillion in the proposed Greek-based system.

The googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeroes) is far larger than any of the numbers discussed here.

 

John Knoderer American Numbering System and Place Values:

http://www.mazes.com/AmericanNumberingSystem.html

http://www.kokogiak.com/megapenny/default.asp
 

Numerical Prefixes - A prefix is a syllable at the beginning of a word. A numerical prefix lets you know how many there are of a particular thing. Here are some common numerical prefixes.

Prefix

Prefix meaning

Sample words

uni-

1

unicorn: mythical creature with one horn

mono-

1

monorail: train that runs on one track

bi-

2

bicycle: two-wheeled vehicle

tri-

3

triceratops: three-horned dinosaur

quadr-

4

quadruped: four-footed animal

quint-

5

quintuplets: five babies born at a single birth

penta-

5

pentagon: figure with five sides

hex-

6

hexapod: having six legs, an insect, for example

sex-

6

sextet: group of six musicians

hept-

7

heptathlon: athletic contest with seven events

sept-

7

septuplets: seven babies at a single birth

octo-

8

octopus: sea creature with eight arms

novem-

9

novena: prayers said over nine days

deka- or deca-

10

decade: a period of 10 years

http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0774340.html

 TAO TE KING    STUDIO

© Dr. Hilmar Alquiros The Philippines 2002 ff.